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Geography


The Roman Empire was located throughout the seven hills just south of the Tiber River. It was made of Europe, Northern Africa, South Western Asia, as well as Britain. Provinces and Regions in the Roman Empire include: Italy, Sicily, Gaul, Spain, Egypt, Asia Mino, and Judea. Cities in the Roman Empire include: Carthage, Athens, Jerusalem, Byzantium and Constantinople. As some may already know, The Roman Empire is no more. So, now there is only Rome and it's separate Continents. Other places that covered the Roman Empire include: Europe, Asia, and Africa. Rome copied other civilizations ways and then adapted them to make it their own. The Romans always used the Tiber River for Transportation. As well as for trading and drinking water. The flat and fertile soil that Rome had was used so that crops could grow easily. Also warm climate and lots of rainfall was good for crops. Since they were near an ocean as well as many rivers it provided fertile land for the people of Rome.
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This map shows where the Roman Empire is loacted.


The Romans were not geographically isolated from the other civilizations whatsoever. They were in between both the Greek and Etruscan civilizations. Also, they have been trading with China, Spain, France, Britain, the middle East, as well as North America. So, they have had contact with others. The Roman Empire had actually overtaken many near by civilizations, but there were still some around.

The seven hills of Rome were sort of like different neighborhoods that we live in today. Different types of people lived around the same hill. The rich lived near a different hill than the slaves of Rome. The seven hills included: The Quirinal, Capitoline, Palatine, Esquiline, Aventine, Caelian, and the Viminal hills.

There were far too many mountains in the Roman Empire to list. Although, shockingly there were not any in he city of Rome. The Carpathian Mountains were the largest range of mountains in Europe. Other mountains in the Roman Empire

included: The Alps Mountains, Atlas Mountains, Arabian Plateau, Caucasus Mountains, Carpathian Mountains, as well as the Apennine Mountains.

There were many bodies of water in Roman. Sea's included: The Aegean Sea, the Black Sea, the Red Sea, the Adriatic Sea, the Baldric Sea, the Caspian Sea, The Tyrrenian Sea, and of course the Mediterranean Sea. Rivers included: The Tiber River, The Rhine River, The Danube River, The Nile River, The Golf De Toronto, The Strait of Sicily, The Elbe River, and The Vistula River. There was really only on main ocean though, and this was the Atlantic Ocean. Out of all these bodies of water, probably the most important one would be the Tiber River. This is because The Romans used this river for drinking water, growing crops, trade, and transportation. There was only one main desert in The Roman Empire and that was the Sahara Desert. Also, I think I forgot to mention that there were also many many volcanoes in the Roman Empire. Although, very few were still activated. And, none had erupted in several hundred years.





Time Period



The Roman Empire was discovered around 100 BC. They emerged as a civilization in 55 BCE. The monarch lasted from about 753 BC to around 476 AD. The Republic lasted from around 510 BC to about 27 BC. And, the Empire was around from 27 BC to 476 AD. The Roman Empire was at there peak in around 117 CE. When they were at there greatest extent they owned over 6.5 million km. Also, when they were at their peek they held most power. They had peace, law and order in their lives at this time.

From 27 CE to 476CE The Roman generals fight for control and power in Rome. Then, after a long and restless war, Rome becomes a dictatorship, and the emperor holds all power.From 509 BCE to 27 BCE The Romans overthrow Etruscans around 509 BCE. Then, the Romans set up the republic and the people held all power. Also, all the citizens of Rome had right to vote, and the first laws were established.

From 800 to 509 BCE The Kingdom had taken part, and the right to rule was inherited. The Etruscan monarchs ruled Rome. Monarchy is when Kings or Queens rule, and that's exactly what happened in this time period.

The Roman Empire was around for approximately 1000 years. There Empire started falling in around 190 AD. After 1000 years, The end of The Roman Empire occurred in 476 CE. They fell because of many reasons. Poor harvests, trade disruption, no war plunder, inflation, high taxes, big gaps between the rich and the poor, diseases, food shortages, invasions from tribes, low funds for defense, not enough soldiers, low patriotism as well as low loyalty towards the empire.


Roman Timeline in 29 seconds:






Government


Ancient Roman government changed throughout the many years that Rome thrived as an ancient civilization. Throughout the approximate 723 years of Ancient Rome, the civilization endured 3 main stages of government.
The first of the three main stages of Government was "The Kingdom". This government type was formed as a Monarch. Ancient Rome, during this period of time was ran from the perspective of a King or Queen. Each King or Queen would have inherited the throne of Ancient Rome by his or her ancestors. This Government phase lasted from 800,BC to 509,BC . It was also the shortest phase of Roman government, lasting a mere 291 years.

S.P.Q.R  Roman Government Abriviation
S.P.Q.R Roman Government Abriviation

The second main phase of Ancient Roman government took place from 509,BC right into year 27,AD. This phase was called "The Roman Republic". This government phase was a strict democratic time. This time, was the phase in which the early laws were established in Ancient Rome. These laws consisted with fairness. Examples of these laws are: A dreadfully deformed child shall be quickly killed. If a father sell his son three times, the son shall be free from his father. Let the protector of a landholder be a landholder; for one of the proletariat, let anyone that cares, be protector. If illness or old age is the hindrance, let the summoner provide a team. He need not provide a covered carriage with a pallet unless he chooses. If he shirks or runs away, let the summoner lay hands on him. If anyone summons a man before the magistrate, he must go. If the man summoned does not go, let the one summoning him call the bystanders to witness and then take him by force.

The third and last of the main government types in Ancient Rome was called "The Roman Empire". The Roman Empire, unlike the other government types; took place during war. Romans thought that in these harsh times a democratic government would be best to eliminate power over each other in result of yet another war. Even with a democratic government, Romans were conducted by an Emperor. It was this emperor that held all the power; if one man held all power, others wouldn't have to fight for power. Throughout time, 'The Empire' became a dictatorship and held strong during the war. This period of Roman government took place from 27,AD through 476,AD.

Each Roman government time stage was unique in it's own way, although they did share one big idea. Ancient Rome was built upon the government of an Emperor, A Dictator and three powerful branches. The emperor, as you know ruled mostly though "The Roman Empire". The Dictator, ruled mostly though "The Roman Republic" The three branches of government of Roman Empire were named 1. Executive Branch. 2. Legislative Branch. 3. Judicial Branch.


First of them all, The Executive Branch was conducted
by two leaders. One of which were the Mayors, Tax collectors and Police officers. These men worked as Executive Leaders in Ancient Rome to keep together law and justice. The second of the leaders were 'The Consuls'. The Consuls also ordered the Roman Army and conducted war. The Consuls were supervised by 'The Senate' which brings me to the next branch.

The Legislative Branch was organized with a Senate. The Senate consisted of about 300 willing men and was also the most powerful of the branches. Not only did 'The Senate' supervise 'The Consuls' they also appointed them as well. The Senate also kept order to the Consuls spending and war procedures. It was the Senates job to make sure that things were kept in order in accordance with the 3 branches.

The third and final branch was called the 'Judicial Branch'. The Judicial Branches purpose was to create court rooms to decide the fate and punishment of the accused. The Judicial Branch had 6 judges that were elected every 2 years. The Judicial branch is much like today’s courts and law programs.






Rise and Fall




Rome emerged as a civilization in 500 BCE and reached it's greatest extend in 117 CE. They conquered many other civilizations such as Europe, Asia, Africa, and Carthage. The Roman Empire was built on slave labor and the conquest of other nations. Britannia (England), Hispania (Spain), Gual/Gallia (France), Achaea (Greece), Judea (Middle East), and the Northern Africa Coastal Region were also conquered by Rome along with Etruscans in 509 BCE. Rome's golden age started in 117 AD. They had control over Europe, northern Africa, and the Middle East, and had more wealth and power than any other civilization. They learned new skills from the Greeks and Etruscans, and the mountains protected them from invaders. It was easy for them to travel since they lived by the Tiber River, they had enough water and food, and lived in a great location.

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Rome was becoming an extremely large country, and eventually expanded so far that they couldn't protect their land. They got attacked by fierce tribes, fought over who would rule, and started getting into financial problems. There were wars against the Immigration Barbarians, and Visigoth Odoacer & his men. No one knows exactly why this civilization fell, but it was said to have been when The Turks had a war against Rome in AD 1453. The Roman Empire may have stayed in power if it had a better geographic location, such as being closer to communication and if it hadn't have gotten so big.


Fall of the Roman Empire Video:






Economy


Trade was a big part in the Roman Empire. They imported many things as seen in the chart below. They did not export as much as they had imported. Their main exports were wine and olive oil but they also traded bricks. They did trade by land if it was only a short distance otherwise they would use the oceans and rivers, such as the Tiber River and the Mediterranean Sea, for transportation of the goods that were traded. The Roman Empires location was a great help to their trading because they were such a big empire. Since they took up such a large amount of land they had many other countries surrounding them that they were able to trade with. Slaves helped bring trading goods to other civilizations. The economy of the empire was based upon social classes. It was some what made up of two different classes, citizens and non-citizens. There was also a social class with in these two social classes. Slaves being close to the bottom, senators and equities being near the top of the citizen class. Twenty percent of the population was slaves but it all depended on the slave labor. The free people were also low on the scale of social classes because they did not really belong to anyone and did not really have their roots planted in a certain place.


Place Imported From
What Was Imported
Britain
tin, lead, woolen products, and gold
France
timber, wool
Spain
lead, silver, copper
Africa
wheat, ivory
Mediterranean
glass
Egypt
grain, papyrus
Ukraine
gold
China
silk
India
spices, cotton, jewels
Baltic Shores
amber
Arabia
perfumes



Technology



The Roman calendar
The Roman calendar
The Ancient Romans had an extraordinary amount of innovations that they had came up with during their vast time period. The bulk of their innovations were for keeping their Empire safe, lowly and strong. Innovations to represent that are: Locks and keys, concrete, Postal system (in which we still use today), lighting, candles, public toilets, scissors, magnifying glasses and Umbrellas for rainy and sunny weather. Ancient Romans also invented Commercialized creams, lipsticks and cosmetics, Bikinis and the Gladiator Games.

Ancient Romans are famous for their great structures and achievements. These great structures needed a good foundation to last for many years. When Ancient Romans first started building chapels and roads they used the concrete that they innovated. The formed this concrete into blocks and stacked them like you would stack a brick chimney. Sewage installations were placed underground and all through the buildings for less garbage blockage. Ancient Romans also were one of the fist Civilizations to use aqueducts (bridges with huge arches) The Ancient Roman aqueducts and well designed roads got them on the path to building great things such as the Colosseum and the Parthenon, which you will learn more about later.

Ancient Romans worked through and on a calendar. Their calendars were
Roman Architechture
Roman Architechture
almost the same compared to ones in modern time. The dates were labeled differently, and in Roman. The days throughout the months were different from then and now. Dates in each month ranged from 23 days to 31 days. The Romans kept this calendar for quite some time. It was was about 34 years later that Ancient Romans changed the name of two months to the calendar and added a new month that the Romans called "Intercalis." This new month lasted for 27 days. They changed the calendar and added a new month for cropping purposes. It was later on, after the time of Rome that "Intercalis" was removed from the calendar.


Religion



The Romans religion was a type of religion called paganism. This means that it is a religion other than Christianity, Judaism or Islam. Another word for their type of religion is polytheistic which means that the
Ancient Roman Temple
Ancient Roman Temple
y believed in and worshipped more than one god. Their religion was very important to them. It was centered around their gods because they believed that the gods controlled their lives. The Romans had a special day for each god/goddess. The people of Rome kept gods in their homes called lares. These lares were set in a special place called a shrine, where they would be worshipped and prayed to every day. These worship times were so important that even the slaves were allowed to attend them. If a person wanted a certain thing to happen they would pray to the god who could make that happen for example, if a farmer wanted rain for his crops he would pray to the goddess Ceres who was the goddess of agriculture. The Romans would also make sacrificial offerings to the gods in order to ensure that the gods would help them and answer their prayers.

After the rain of one of Rome's emperors, Augustus, the Roman people believed that the emperors were gods so they started worshipping the emperors. They still worshipped their many gods at the same time though because what is one more god if you already have around 20 major gods already? The Romans did not like the Jews and Christians because they did not believe and worship their gods so they decided to kill as many of them as they could. Other wise take them into slavery and take over their countries. To prepare a person for the after life the family members would put in coins to pay C haron. They also put in food, jewelry and cosmetics. The sarcophagus was usually decorated with a picture of the deceased person. The ancient Romans thought it was very important that their loved ones were buried properly other wise they would be denied at the entrance to the underworld and would spend an eternity in purgatory-like existence.

The Roman's did believe in life after death and the way to pass into the after life was very complicated. They believed that after the person died they were met by the messenger god, Mercury, so that he can take them to the river Styx. When they arrived at the river they had to pay the ferryman, Charon, a coin or two in order to cross. At the other side of the river they were met by Minos, Aenaeus, and Rhadymanthas to be judged.

Though they believed in the after life they did not believe in eternal malediction. After being judged if they were some kind of hero or warrior they were sent to the Fields of Elysuim or if they were just an ordinary person they were sent to the Plain of Asphodel. If you were judged to have committed a crime against society you would be sent to Tartarus to be tortures by Furies your dept to society has been paid. All three of these places in the underworld were ruled by Pluto, a brother of Jupiter.




List of Roman Gods & Goddesses (Major)
Table of Names

Names of Roman Gods
Description of what the
Roman Gods presided over

Apollo
Apollo was the God of the Sun, poetry, music and oracles
Bacchus
Bacchus was the God of Wine
Ceres
Ceres was the Goddess of Agriculture
Cupid
Cupid was the God of Love
Diana
Diana was the Goddess of Hunting
Fauna
Goddess of Animals
Flora
Flora was the Goddess of Flowers and Spring
Fortuna
Fortuna was the Goddess of Fortune
Janus
Janus was the God of Doors and beginnings and endings
Juno
Juno was the Goddess of Marriage
Jupiter aka Jove
Jupiter was the King of the Gods and the God of the sky and rain (aka Jove)
Mars
Mars was the God of War
Mercury
Mercury was the Messenger of the Gods and of Commerce and Finance
Minerva
Minerva was the Goddess of Wisdom, the City, Education, Science and War
Neptune
Neptune was the God of the Sea
Pluto
Pluto was the God of the Underworld
Saturn
Saturn was the God of Harvest and Agriculture
Venus
Venus was the Goddess of Love and Beauty
Vesta
Vesta was the Goddess of the Hearth and the Roman state
Vulcan
Vulcan was the God of Fire, the Forge and Blacksmiths
Names of Roman Gods
Description of what the
Roman Gods presided over

List of Roman Gods & Goddesses (Major)
Table of Names




Social Classes


Social Families
Social Families
Rome was once a country that was almost dependent on slaves. Most Romans had a slave in their household but not all of them. Most of the rich Romans had slaves and treated them how ever they wanted. This made Rome a low classed land.If men did not register their family, slaves, and riches every five years they were sold into slavery . Different groups had more or less power, rights, and freedoms. In order from the most power, rights, and freedoms the aristocracy came first, then the common folk, then slaves, and lastly the free men that came to Rome. In fact, the lord of a house could sell of their family members as if they were slaves. According to time period, slaves were treated harshly in Rome's early times, but got treated with more respect later on. Most slaves were forced to do work, but some chose to in order to make a living. Jobs that slaves often did was in the houses and fields, but they also sent messages and helped load and carry supplies for trading. Slavery was not based on race. Whenever the Romans conquered another civilization they took women and prisoners as slaves in celebration. However, if a slave was originally from Rome they were treated different than one from another civilization. New victories brought new slaves. In 1AD there was 300,000-350,000 slaves in Rome out of about 900,000 people. Slaves tried putting an end to being treated with cruelty but only some got treated with more respect. It usually depended on the slave, some were treated like part of the family and had the freedom to come or go when they wanted, and others had no choice. In conclusion, slaves were a vital part of the Roman Empire, and a big part of their accomplishments.







Art and Architecture

roma1.jpg
Roman Architechture

The Romans were recognized for their arts back in roman times. Romans also made many forms of art from many new and interesting materials. They made cloth, mosaics, objects from pottery, as well as making art using different materials such as silver, glass, plates, and vases. The Romans loved to entertain. The Colosseum was where shows and plays were put on by actors. These actors were actually played by slaves in the Roman Empire. The slaves loved to entertain, and the audience found theses plays very entertaining. They had wild animal shows, new and enjoyable plays put on, as well as chariot racing throughout the Colosseum.

The roman empires main form of art included: sculptures, buildings, theaters, as well as many new crafts. Crafts included pottery, making mosaics, cloth, and sometimes even quilting. Women made crafts in their spare time when they weren't busy doing housework or taking care of the family.

The Pantheon was best known in the Roman Empire. The Pantheon meant "the temple to all gods." The Colosseum was another important building in Rome. Plays and shows were always preformed at the Colosseum, it was a very important structure in the Empire of Rome. Also entertainment was put on at the Theater not too far from the Colosseum. Although, most were performed at the Colosseum.
Roman Art
Roman Art

We know that the Romans valued art greatly because they built theaters to enjoy entertainment that was in store for them. Theses buildings were built so people of Rome could experience the arts.Also, we know that Rome valued art because they had time for it, so obviously it was a big part of their lives. People today have learned about theater and arts through the Romans.





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Bibliography


Books:

Title: Ancient Worlds 7 textbook
Author: Arnold Toutant
Published by: Oxford University Press
Published in 2000

Title: Ancient Worlds Outlook 7
Authors: ARNOLD TOUTANT and SUSAN DOYLE
First Published in 2000

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